Every now and again, an astonishing advance is made in science. However, these are not always immediately recognized or embraced as such, for one reason or another, as we have seen throughout the history of science. Consider Nikola Tesla's alternating current as one example among many.

This post is designed to draw much-deserved attention to not one but *three* meaningful scientific advances that come to us from within the ranks of the __Quantum Bicycle Society__'s members. They are:

What is an electron — on the inside — and what

*gives*it its charge and spin? (Dr. John G. Williamson, Dr. Martin B. van der Mark, Dr. Vivian N.E. Robinson)How do protons and neutrons actually stick to each other to form the nucleus of an atom? (Dr. Vivian N.E. Robinson)

What is gravity

*really*, and how does it actually work? (Dr. Vivian N.E. Robinson)

*These are each significant achievements!*

__(____More details__ on each of these three breakthroughs, along with sources, can be found __HERE__.)

__BREAKTHROUGH #1__: The Electron

The first breakthrough, the Williamson-van der Mark model of the electron, is the first model in more than a century — since the discovery of the electron in 1897 — that allows the charge of the electron to be calculated, *a priori*, just from the theory. What's more, it also allows for the *a priori* calculation of the electron's anomalous magnetic moment, known as g-2.

*This deserves much more attention.*

Since you are now wondering: This model proposes that an electron consists of a single, concentrated, self-confined photon of light (of the appropriate energy) making two revolutions for every wavelength. This allows the photon’s fields to lock in on themselves as they trace a toroidal path in (momentum) space. This results in a donut-shaped, phase-locked, stationary wave that defines the particle. As a result of the photon's circular polarization and its double-loop rotation, the same polarity of its electric field is always outwardly directed, resulting in its (monopole) charge.

In order to conserve the circularly-polarized photon’s angular momentum, the torus will also tumble in space like a head-over-heels spinning ring. The sphere on the right above represents the result of this — a projection onto normal 3-dimensional space of the electron’s charge distribution, which is perfectly spherical in normal “space-space.” (Obviously, that symmetry would be broken by the presence of an external magnetic field.)

This development is truly significant for another reason. For the first time, this model *unifies the quantum and the classical realms.* This means that quantum processes can be understood using the classical concepts of bodies (or objects) and motion, something that physicists had been seeking for many years but has proved confoundingly elusive. Until now.

__BREAKTHROUGH #2__: Nuclear Binding

The second breakthrough, the Robinson Model of Nuclear Binding, explains the actual mechanism and nature of the so-called "strong nuclear force" that allow positive protons and neutral neutrons to bind together to form a nucleus. This intuitive model is based firmly upon the foundation of electromagnetism, as well as upon a rotating photon sub-structure for the proton and the neutron. They, too, are made of (higher energy) light.

This model also explains what radioactivity *is*, and why it is no coincidence that alpha particles, pictured below, are the nucleon units that are ejected during decay.

__BREAKTHROUGH #3__: Quantum Gravity

The third breakthrough, the Robinson Model of Quantum Gravity, proposes a specific mechanism by which the quantum properties of matter distort spacetime, resulting in gravity. This approach yields a *single*, simple differential equation — an equation of quantum gravity — that derives:

Newton’s inverse square law as a first approximation,

Einstein’s field equations as a second approximation,

and the bright torus-shaped accretion disc observed (at

*r*= 0.5𝛼) around massive objects and galaxy centers as an exact solution.

In summary, gravity is caused by a change in the refractive index of space, which is caused by the radial differential of the electric permittivity of space. In turn, this is induced by the high frequency electric field oscillations resulting from the rotating photon structure of nucleons. The high frequency nucleon oscillations add to produce a variation in electric permittivity that produces the same deflection for photons of all frequencies.

*Gravity is therefore an electromagnetic effect.* It is only attractive (as opposed to being attractive and repulsive like electromagnetism) because it is a refraction always towards the increased electric permittivity of space associated with mass.

A key result of this model is that gravity becomes *weaker* than inverse square when mass becomes larger. This is not only predicted by this model but observed in the “anomalous” precession of the orbits of Mercury (around the Sun) and S2 (around Sagittarius A).

__MORE DETAILS__ on each of these three breakthroughs, along with sources, can be found __HERE__.

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